However, individual suffering, functional impairments as well as the direct and indirect costs associated with the disease remain substantial. Conclusion Paragraph For Essay On Ocd, emilio maggio phd thesis, nurse residency essay sample, do job resume microsoft word 2007 Conclusion Paragraph For Essay On Ocd trying to get out of the creative Conclusion Paragraph For Essay On Ocd rut. Maria would be put on a plan that only lets her brush her teeth a few time’s day and limited to how many times she can clean and straighten her house, eventually she would have to skip a day in cleaning her house. Conclusions: clinical effectiveness. In peer reviewed article, “Cognitive behavior therapy and medications in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder,” the researcher’s studied to determine what treatment would best help a person suffering from this disorder. An OCD is not an anti-social psychological disorder. Excessive washing that takes up hours of each day. Although there is not a cure for OCD, and its exact origins are not specifically known by science or medicine at this time, there is help for those who suffer from compulsions, obsessions, and severe or intense anxiety created by unwanted thoughts and inaccurate beliefs. More RCTs are needed comparing medications with psychotherapies in a single trial. Psychoanalysis is a verbal therapy to help a person receive freedom from their emotional pain. When it comes to insurance companies or other third party reimbursement such as Medicaid fast outcome are important. OCD is considered as an anxiety disorder. When someone suffers from an anxiety disorder, our minds are always in overdrive, racing at top speeds trying to figure everything out. Ocd.about.com, Rais, T. B. The person is unable to control either the thoughts or … Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.webmd.com. Research supports that genetics play a major role in OCD, but need more research on the environmental factors to support Durand and Barlow theory. Maria sometimes worries if she is devoted enough and over whether she is performing the rituals perfectly where she began doing rituals that takes up hours and hours of her day. All work is written to order. Guilt thrives from these thoughts where they pray over and over again, repeatedly confessing to purge the fear that they are “Doomed to hell” (Higgins, 1992). There has been a twin study on monozygotic twins to find if genetic and environment had an effect on OCD. In our primary analysis, clomipramine and venlafaxine are slightly more cost-effective than SSRIs because of somewhat greater effectiveness (clomipramine) or a lower dropout rate (venlafaxine). Cognitive ModelsD. These feelings may cause physical symptoms, such as increased heart rate and shakiness. OCD medication. This test is designed to overlap between depression and anxiety scales by measuring the most common anxiety symptoms which are minimally shared with depression (American, 1994). After, learning what researches believe the best treatment are and discussion a treatment plan I think will help Maria, we will discover the different therapeutic theories and new medication that are being devised. Anafranil has a few harsher side effects such as, heart racing, difficulty in concentrating, slower thinking ability, and weight gain. Regarding the relative effectiveness of treatments, our review highlighted the great uncertainty surrounding the published randomised evidence. Anxiety is a normal, but highly subjective, human emotion. This program consisted of a 90-minute individual therapy session, and four hours of homework five days a week. However, the combination of SSRIs and BT or CBT seemed an acceptable treatment, although we do not have sufficient evidence to suggest that the combination of medication and psychotherapy is better than psychotherapy alone. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and mental disorders in general tend to get a bad rap in our society. The PET scans showed changes in normalized regional glucose metabolism and bilateral decreases in normalized thalamic metabolism. Once the genetic and environment influences are understood they can determine the best treatment. The choice of the most cost-effective pharmacological therapy also depends, to a large extent, on the subset of RCTs informing effect size estimates. Again, there is considerable uncertainty in the economic model, which makes it impossible to definitively identify a single most cost-effective treatment strategy. Behavioral ModelsB. Rituals are done over and over to get rid of guilt. When serotonin are too low a person does things they normally would not do and tend to overreact doing impulsive actions. oth physiological and cognitive components of anxiety are addressed in the 21 items describing subjective, somatic, or panic-related symptoms (Kingsbury & Williams, 2003). A person with OCD is plagued with recurring and distressing thoughts and fears that they spend hours distressing over (obsessions) that they cannot control. At present, the trial evidence on effectiveness does not justify a stepped approach towards the recommendations, although, of course, other considerations would also have informed the NICE guideline group. Owens, K. (2009). 22 samples on this topic . Understanding and treating obsessive compulsive disorder. Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder in which a person has certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions") or feels the need to perform certain routines repeatedly (called "compulsions") to an extent which generates distress or impairs general functioning. The results were more twins (both of them) had OCD behaviors later in life if they had parents that were anxious and depressed. Skapinakis P, Caldwell D, Hollingworth W, et al. After getting an understanding the research that has been done on the biological aspect of OCD, Researchers researched and noticed a strong correlation that genetics play a big role in a person developing OCD, but no factual evidence. A person most often know their obsessions and compulsions are unrealistic, they cannot stop from doing them (Webmd, n.d,.). NICE guidance does not currently distinguish between higher and lower cost SSRIs, but given that prescribing is recommended for extended periods (12 months and beyond), a focus on the cheaper SSRIs (e.g. In about 80 percent of cases, obsessions lead to mental and motor compulsions (repetitive ritualized thoughts or acts) to reduce the anxiety. Retrieved March, 28, 2010 From http:obsessive compulsive-disorder, American Psychiatric Association. Medications that seemed to work the best were those that are serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRI), Serotonin reuptake inhibitors showed more improvement in their moods to where they could finally work on their OCD behaviors. Cognitive CharacteristicsC. For example, if a person has a fear that their hands being contaminated, the therapist will encourage the client touch the object they fear and ride it through to the end without washing their hands, such as door knobs (Durand, & Barlow 2007). Disclaimer: This is an example of a student written essay.Click here for sample essays written by our professional writers. This could have influence her to have so much guilt which in turn caused her to do have religious obsessions. Cath, D.C., Van Grootheest, D.S., Sillemsen, G., Van Oppen, P., & Boomsma, (2008). If you’re not seeing any positive results from conventional treatments or drugs, the above mentioned natural and holistic treatments can provide relief. As mentioned before, Maria was predisposed to OCD and it was activated from the environment by the petunias at the funeral. Fine, S. (2007). The severity of the symptoms decreased in the patients and some were described as being in remission. In 1907 Freud stated OCD resembled religious rituals. Theory and TreatmentA. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common, chronic, and long-lasting disorder in which a person has uncontrollable, reoccurring thoughts (obsessions) and/or behaviors (compulsions) that he … If a SSRI is used, the choice of drug has important economic implications. One known therapy that works for OCD is behavioral exposure. Maria will also be restricted to the total of spiritual rituals she could do. Expressive attempts to relieve symptoms through understanding their thought and feelings that possible they might not be aware of. Free resources to assist you with your university studies! By going to family therapy will help change the dynamics in Maria’s family. The following questionnaire will help you identify the types of problems that most trouble you.. Read through the statements listed and note the ones that are true for you. However, anxiety can become severe enough that it affects a person's ability to function properly on a daily basis. Large-series placebo-controlled, double-blind studies are recommended. On average, one out of fifty adults currently suffer from this disorder, and twice that many have had it at some point in their lives. This device is not exempt from side effects, One that has been know is cerebral hemorrhage and brain infections, non life threaten have ever been reported. This article concludes that genetics played a more role in OCD then the environment. In Maria’s case her mom showed strong OCD tendencies with the her many superstitions (genes). To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! Explore a big database【WITH NO SIGN UP】– 100% FREE Anxiety Essay Examples All popular types of essays Argumentative, Persuasive, Narrative & Research Papers. Obsessions are recurring and persistent thoughts, impulses, or images that are intrusive that are not only “excessive” worries. Intrusive and unwanted thoughts, images or urges are called obsessions. Diagnosis and treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder and related disorders. A person with low levels of serotonin are more quick to do abnormal behaviors. Cognitive, behavior therapy and medication in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive. Mental illnesses, such as OCD are pervasive, touching every part of the individual’s life. Allison, A. This thesis provides initial support for the claim that OCD is related to adult internal representations of attachment relationships (Doron … (2007). Conclusion Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is a complex and sometimes frightening anxiety disorder. Religion was the universal “obsessional neurosis” (Yossifova, & Loewenthal, 1999. p. 145). The most common therapy used to treat OCD patients is cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). OCD is an anxiety disorder characterized by intrusive and distressing thoughts, urges and images as well as repetitive behaviours aimed at decreasing the discomfort caused by these obsessive thoughts. Intrusive religious, violent or sexual thoughts. Order custom written essays, research papers, theses, Conclusion Paragraph For Essay On Ocd dissertations and other college assignments from our experienced writers. Md (n.d.). A person with OCD is considered to have a “faulty brain circuit,” because of the low levels of serotonin (Durand, & Barlow, 2007). Info: 4925 words (20 pages) Essay I. Family and Patient CharacteristicsA. About Obsessive Compulsive Disorder An anxiety disorder characterised by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessive compulsive disorder. Genetics play more to this disorder than the environment. Behavior and cognitive techniques symptoms of obsessive compulsive, disorder. Conclusion In conclusion, this paper described what OCD is, and how this disorder affects people around the world. More studies of this design are needed. The author suggested that more studies would need to be conducted to determine the exact nature between Genetics and the environment factors of OCD (Cath, Van Grootheest, Sillemsen,Van Oppen, & Boomsma, 2008). The results of this review support a range of effective options, both pharmacological and psychological, for the management of OCD in all age groups. The purpose of this project is to provide a comprehensive five part project on obsessive-compulsive disorder. Students usually look for a good essay writing service that can provide a high-quality essay written by US-native writers. Company Registration No: 4964706. OCD-UK have taken all reasonable care in compiling this information, but always recommend consulting a doctor or other suitably qualified health professional for diagnosis and treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder or any other medical condition. Data was collected on the family structure, health of the family, lifestyle of the family, if there were any complications at the babies birth, events that happened in their life, and other environment factors in their life. Introduction Definition Aetiology Patho physiology Clinical presentation Signs and symptoms Differential diagnosis Diagnosis Treatment Non-pharmacological Pharmacological Psychological Co-morbid conditions Relapse Therapeutic outcomes Conclusion The things Maria did that are considered typical signs of OCD were spending six to eight hours cleaning her hands so she would feel clean, performing religious rituals that occupied hours of her day, cleaning an already clean house for hours a day, and avoiding coming in contact with her husband and children (case study 1, Kaplan university). A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pharmacological and psychological interventions for the management of obsessive–compulsive disorder in children/adolescents and adults. Higgins, N. C. (1992). C. (2006). A person struggles between the desire and the actions of their conscious and their unconscious mind. Their conscious mind knows it is ridiculous and bizarre it is to continue to do these actions (Allison, 2008). If trials with high risk of bias owing to ‘incomplete outcome assessment’ are excluded, no CT trials remain and the difference in effect size between BT and CBT is much smaller (see. Obsessive compulsive disorder. The PET scores also showed an increase in a person’s right dorsal anterior anterior cingulated cortex activity along with improvement in their OCD symptoms (Douglas, 2008). Retrieved March 26, 2010 from, Schonbeck, J. In conclusion, the evidence broadly supports the approach of the NICE guideline. While normal anxiety serves a beneficial and adaptive purpose, anxiety can also become the cause of tremendous suffering for millions of people. They expect therapists to provide written documentation to justify the treatment and expected length of the client’s treatment (Hill, & Beamish, 2007). Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? The evidence we found did not stratify the analyses in accordance with the severity of the illness so we could not justify this approach from the empirical data, although it might appear sensible from a clinical perspective. Washington, DC: American psychiatric. A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pharmacological and psychological interventions for the management of obsessive–compulsive disorder in children/adolescents and adults. Dr. James Kennedy, a Neurogeneticist, said “a role in a person developing OCD if they have a relative that is affected with this disorder.” In his article he said that the DNA (5HT1 D Beta) receptor gene is passed to their offspring (Mundo, Richter, Zar, Sam, McBride, Macciardi, & Kennedy, 2002). More research … European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience; 258 (3) p 107-116.   Theories of cognitive therapy claim that we are what we think we are. Maria can have this; it will be hard work but worth the price she has to pay to be free of this disorder that has held her hostage for so many years. It would be supportive for Maria to start on some medication to help decrease her anxiety when she begins cognitive behavior therapy. From Clara Weaks’ book, Healing Your Bad Nerves (out of print), I remembered that there were three phases to panic and an anxiety … The counselor would have Maria touch thing that she fears are contaminated and not be allowed to wash her hand afterwards. CBT is among the most effective treatment options, and the higher initial costs of CBT compared with SSRIs are counterbalanced by better outcomes and lower long-term costs of care at current NICE willingness-to-pay thresholds. OCD symptoms tend to emerge in childhood, around age 10, or in young adulthood, around age 20 to 21, and they often appear earlier in boys than in girls. (2015) that exposure-based CBT is an effective treatment for OCD in community children and adolescent outpatient clinics. Most people are diagnosed with OCD by the time they reach young adulthood. Behavior therapy, specifically cognitive-behavioral therapy , helps the child change negative thoughts into more positive, effective ways of thinking, leading to more effective behavior. The mainstay of treatment includes cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) and medication management. It was concluded by Torp et al. (2000). It was interesting the study showed no noticeable difference among those that took medication and those that took placebo, but when the person added therapy with the medication they made major improvement. This therapy was pioneered by Joseph Wolpe which includes assertiveness training, operant conditioning, and desensitization (Schonbeck, 2005) Wolpe reported great success with the stigmatic desensitization for those with phobias (Durand, & Barlow, 2001). Health Essays - Treatment OCD Disorder. More research needs to be conducted on the environmental reasons a person has obsessive compulsive disorder to sustain that the combination of genetic and environmental factors a person end up having psychological disorders. Conclusion: Sarcosine treatment can achieve a fast therapeutic effect in some OCD patients, particularly those who are treatment naive. What are the signs and symptoms of OCD? Epidemiology and Clinical CourseB. In adults with OCD with moderate functional impairment, current NICE guidance recommends either a course of a SSRI or more intensive CBT (including ERP) with > 10 therapist hours per patient, noting that these treatments appear to be comparably efficacious. Exposure and response prevention 2. They recommend that those with mild symptoms should be offered low-intensity (< 10 sessions or group treatment) CBT including ERP. The following questionnaire will help you identify the types of problems that most trouble you.. 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